DICTIONARY


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19th C. European and British Art Style (1800-1900) 19th Century European and British art consists of various artistic movements in Europe including Rococo, Classicism, Revolutionary art, Spanish art, Romanticism, the Barbizon School, Realism, Orientalism, Idealism, Victorian, Impressionism, Neo-Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, Naturalism, Art Nouveau and Symbolism. The 19th century was a time of changing ideas revolving around the purpose of art, the appropriate choice of subject matter, the attitude between the artist and the public, the artist's relationship with nature and new technology's influence on art. 19th C. / Early 20th C. American Art Style (1800-1900) 19th Century American art consists of various artistic movements in America including Rococo, Classicism, Revolutionary art, Romanticism, Realism, Idealism, Impressionism, Neo-impressionism, Post Impressionism, Naturalism, Art Nouveau and Symbolism.

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Abstract Art (1900-1950) Any form of art that does not represent reality convincingly, but instead distorts it. In this movement, artists began with a known visible object and abstracted it to produce a more simplified form. Pioneers of the Abstract Art movement include Kandinsky, Malevich and Mondrian. Abstract Expressionism (1940-1960) The Abstract Expressionists were based in New York City and were often referred to as the New York School. They were influenced by the ideas of Surrealism and aimed to make abstract art that also possessed expressive and emotional qualities. Academic art (18th century) Painting, works on paper, prints and sculpture. This term refers to art created according to the official academies of traditional painting and sculpture which flourished in Europe from the 17th to the 19th centuries. Academy This term refers to the institutional school established for the classical training of artists during the 17th and 18th centuries. Acanthus This term refers to a type of decorative element found in architecture derived from the acanthus leaves found in the Mediterranean. Acid Burn Brown discoloration on paper, resulting from acidic matting or mounting materials. Acid Free A characteristic of inert materials; especially said of papers with a 7 pH, or very close to 7 pH. Below 6.5 pH or above 8.5 pH is not considered acid-free. Acid free materials are more permanent, less likely to experience acid migration — to discolor, or to deteriorate materials they are placed with over time. Works on paper, and the mats, mounts, etc. with which they are framed, are best acid free. This term is sometimes used incorrectly as a synonym for "alkaline" or "buffered." Such materials may be produced from virtually any cellulose fiber source (cotton and wood, among others), if measures are taken during manufacture to eliminate active acid from the pulp. However free of acid a paper or board may be immediately after its manufacture, over time the presence of residual chlorine from bleaching, aluminum sulfate from sizing, or pollutants in the atmosphere may lead to the formation of acid unless the paper or board has been buffered with an alkaline substance. The presence of alpha cellulose in paper or board is an indication of its stability or longevity. Non-cellulosic components of wood are believed to contribute to the degradation of paper and board. Acquisition An object a collector or museum acquires (accessions) through gift, bequest, field expedition, or purchase. Or such an act of acquiring. Acrylic Water-based plastic paint consisting of pigments bound in an acrylic resin mixture. Can be thinned with water while wet, but becomes tough and water resistant once dry. Acrylic Paint Artists’ colors made by polymerizing a methyl methacrylate by emulsification, thus dispersing the resin into tiny particles in water. This fluid is used for a base in compounding polymer colors. Acrylic colors are water soluble when wet, but dry to an insoluble film. Colors are bright, dry quickly and are flexible. Acrylic / Plastic: Acrylic/plastic is a synthetic material made from the polymerization of organic compounds. As technology advanced, the use of plastics in art became more prevalent in the latter half of the 20th century. Action Painting (1945-1960s) Painting, works on paper. Closely associated with abstract expressionism, action painting focused on the spontaneity of applying paint to the canvas. Instead of focusing on the final image, this style of painting was much more interested in the act of painting itself. Jackson Pollock is one of the most well known action painters. Adhesive Failure Occurs when the adhesive deteriorates to the point of collapse. Can be found in works on paper (e.g., prints that have been mounted or collaged). Aesthetics The word aesthetic or aesthetics refers to the philosophy of visual beauty. Aesthetic Movement (1870s-1880s) Painting, prints, works on paper. This movement emphasized the beauty of all objects for everyone to take pleasure in, not just the elite. African American Artists An artist who is American born, but whose ancestors were of African descent. Their art during the 18th and 19th centuries reflected early African artistic traditions, but progressed and merged with western fine art styles during the 20th century. Air Brush An instrument, powered by compressed air, used to spray paint with delicate control and precision. Paint (usually a fine water color) is held in a small cup attached to the side of the pen-like instrument. Paint is drawn through the "brush" by the Venturi effect. The result is characterized by a very smooth, even texture and unbroken tonal gradations. Alla Prima To paint on canvas or other ground directly, in full, opaque color, without any preliminary drawing or underpainting done first. (Underpainting is often done to establish the larger masses of the composition, or to establish tonal values (lights and darks)). Albumen Print An albumen print is created by the process developed by Louis Desire Blanquart-Evrard in 1850, which uses egg whites and photographic chemicals to produce a print on paper from a negative. Alkyd Synthetic resin used in the manufacturing of paints and varnishes. An alkyd is a mixture of alcohol and acid and must be thinned with solvent or paint thinner. Alykds dry faster than oils but not as fast as acrylic paints. Allegory An allegory is an image that illustrates a particular concept, idea or story within a work of art. Alloy An alloy is a mixture of metals without any chemical combination. American Impressionism (1890s-1920s) Painting, prints, works on paper. Not only did Impressionism flourish in Europe, but it also influenced American artists. They employed the same techniques and subject matter. Notable American impressionists include William Morris Hunt, John La Farge, Joseph Foxcroft Cole, George Inness, Alexander Wyant, and Dennis Miller Bunker. American Regionalism (c. 1930s) Painting, prints, works on paper. This movement was primarily composed of Midwestern rural artists who appeared around the 1930s. Ancient Art & Antiquities Paintings, prints, works on paper, sculpture. Ancient Art and Antiquities refers to art from the beginning of civilization through the Dark Ages, ranging from Western Europe to the Caspian Sea including the cultures of Egypt, Greece, Rome and the Near East. Antebellum Era (1820-1850) Painting, prints, works on paper. This movement refers to American art created before and leading up to the Civil War. Applied art Applied art refers art designed for functional purposes, but also maintains aesthetic attributes. It could also be called "decorative art" or "design." Appropriation The act of borrowing imagery or forms to create something new. Aquatint A print produced by the same technique as an etching, except that the areas between the etched lines are covered with a powdered resin that protects the surface from the biting process of the acid bath. The granular appearance that results in the print aims at approximating the effects and gray tonalities of a watercolor drawing. Archival Broadly used to describe materials that have the least harmful effects on the art being framed or stored and thus preserving such pieces for the longest period of time. Art A form of human activity created primarily as an aesthetic expression, especially, but not limited to drawing, painting and sculpture. Art Brut (c. 1950) Painting, prints, works on paper, sculpture. Invented by Jean Dubuffet, Art Brut was created as "raw" art by individuals who existed completely outside of society and the world of art schools, galleries and museums. Art Deco (1920-1939) Refers to the movement characterized by the use of bold materials, patterns and designs. Art Deco took characteristics from many previous movements and influenced a wide variety of media. Art for Art’s Sake This phrase describes the type of art created for no moral or social reasons, but purely for aesthetic pleasure. Art Nouveau (1880-1914) Painting, prints, works on paper, sculpture. This movement pervaded a variety of mediums, but was most prominent in architecture and design. Distinctive by an organic, asymmetrical, decorative style, Art Nouveau can be characterized by flowing lines, shapes and forms. Arte Povera (1960s-1970s) Painting, works on paper, sculpture. This term refers to the Italian art movement in which artists worked outside of the traditional art-making mediums. Instead, they used materials which could be acquired for free or very inexpensively. It literally means "poor art" but, in actuality, it does not denote an impoverished art, but an art made without boundaries. Artisan A skillful craftsman. One skilled in an applied art. Artist’s Proof Historically, it was a print retained by the artist for his/her own use or sale. It may bear the designation A/P. Artist's Proof An Artist's Proof is one outside the regular edition, but printed at the same time or after the regular edition from the same plates without changes. By custom, the artist retains the A/Ps for his personal use or sale. Typically, 10% of the edition total is designated as A/P, or in the case of a small edition, five graphics are usually so designated. Ashcan School (1910s) Painting, works on paper. This movement is characterized by depicting scenes of daily life in poor neighborhoods. It became prominent in the early 20th century in the United States. Notable artists associated with this movement include Robert Henri, Arthur B. Davies, Maurice Prendergast, Ernest Lawson, William Glackens, Everett Shinn, John French Sloan, and George Luks. Atelier French term for "printer's workshop." Autochrome Autochrome refers to the color “screen-plate” process developed by the Lumiere brothers in 1903. It was the principal color photography process until it was replaced by color film in the mid-1930s. Avant-Garde A group active in the invention and application of new ideas and techniques in an original or experimental way. A group of practitioners and/or advocates of a new art form may also be called avant-garde. Some avant-garde works are intended to shock those who are accustomed to traditional, established styles.

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Background Within the space of a work of art, the background is the area of the image farthest from the picture plane. The opposite of background is foreground. Barbizon School (1830s-1870s) Painting, prints, works on paper. The Barbizon School included a group of French painters who believed in realism in art as opposed to the Romantic Movement during the mid-19th century. Baroque (1620-1715) Painting, prints, works on paper, sculpture. In the visual arts, Baroque was a period dominated by exaggeration and detail. Artists such as Peter Paul Rubens, Caravaggio, and Cortona are known for their dramatic works associated with this movement. Bauhaus (1919-1933) Refers to the art and architecture school in Germany that operated in the early 1900s, and had a profound influence on art, architecture, graphic design, interior design, industrial design and typography. The Bauhaus style, pioneered by modern architect Walter Gropius, became one of the most well-known currents in Modernist architecture. Bay Area Figuration (1950s-present) This mid-20th century movement embodied a group of artists from the San Francisco Bay Area who deserted Abstract Expressionism and instead turned to figuration in art. Biological Degradation Any interruption in the original material due to current or previous biological infestation or insect damage, such as holes or remaining dust-like material. Binary Colors Colors made by the mixing of two hues. Examples are orange, green, and purple. Bleed Pigments that run into an adjoining area or up through coats of paint, usually undesirably (see bleeding through and bleed-proof). A fuzziness or spreading at the edges of a painted area. And, in the graphic arts, to extend the edge of a printed area, leaving no margin at one or more edges of a page. This is done by printing an extra 1/8 inch of image area, to be trimmed later. Bleed Marks Lines at the corners of a piece of artwork to be reproduced. The extending area — the bleed (typically 1/8 inch) — can be seen outside of the bleed marks. Block Printing Printing methods in which a block of wood, linoleum or some other material's surface is carved so that an image can be printed from it — uncarved areas receiving ink which transfers to another surface when the block is pressed against it. Also known as relief printing. Bloom Occurs when moisture penetrates a varnished surface, causing cloudy areas to appear. Bon a Tirer (B.A.T.) When the artist is satisfied with the graphic from the finished plate, he works with his printer to pull one perfect graphic and it is marked "Bon a Tirer," meaning "good to pull." The printer then compares each graphic in the edition with the BAT before submitting the graphic to the artist for approval and signature. There is typically one BAT which becomes the property of the printer or workshop printing the edition. Brass Brass is an alloy of zinc and copper. BritArt (1992-present) Refers to the group of young artists based in the United Kingdom. They received their name from the Saatchi Gallery exhibitions starting in 1992 which originally brought them to fame. Broken / Separated Element A broken element is part of an item that has been fractured into two or more parts. A separated element is part of an item that has been become disconnected. Bronze An alloy of copper and tin, sometimes containing small proportions of other elements such as zinc or phosphorus. It is stronger, harder, and more durable than brass, and has been used most extensively since antiquity for cast sculpture. Bronze alloys vary in color from a silvery hue to a rich, coppery red. U.S. standard bronze is composed of 90% copper, 7% tin, and 3% zinc. Byzantine (867-1453) Byzantine refers to the art from the Eastern Roman Empire. The majority of these works have a religious context and are characterized by strong colors and figures.

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California Style (1920s-1950s) Painting, works on paper. This term refers to the artistic movement in California. Artists of the California style were impacted by earlier modern movements and adapted those influences into their own style. Calligraphy The art of highly ornamental handwriting. Calotype A calotype is a photomechanical method for reproducing photographic images. While it is no longer practiced as a commercial process, it was considered the height of fine art photography beginning in the 1970s. Canvas (1) A heavy woven fabric usually of cotton or linen, used as a support for a painting. The surface is prepared for painting by applying gesso or rabbit skin glue. (2) Interlocked or woven fibers used as the ground material for needle art. Canvas Relined When the original canvas of a painting has been damaged or weakened, the piece is removed from its stretchers, backed in linen or canvas, and placed on its original stretchers or on new ones. Canvas Re-stretched When the original canvas of a painting has been tightened on its original stretchers, or taken off of its original stretchers and placed on new ones. Carbon Print First produced in 1864 by Joseph Wilson Swan, a carbon print is a photographic print created by immersing a carbon tissue in a solution of potassium bichromate, carbon, gelatin and a coloring agent. Cast Plaster, Concrete, or Plastic Resin Plaster or concrete can also be cast using single waste or multiple piece molds. The final product lacks the aesthetic quality that most metals acquire after casting. Therefore, plaster, plastic or concrete sculptures are typically painted to give the appearance of metal or stone. C-Print Developed in 1930, the c-print is the most universal type of color photograph, created using at least three emulsion layers of light sensitive silver salts. Each layer is sensitized to a specific primary color. As a result, each layer records different information for the color make up of an image. Centrifugal Casting A type of non-expendable mold casting, centrifugal casting is gravity and pressure-independent. In this method, molten metal is poured into the cavity of a spinning chamber. Ceramics The art making of objects of clay and firing them in a kiln. Wares of earthenware and porcelain, as well as sculpture are made by ceramists. Enamel is also a ceramic technique. Ceramic materials may be decorated with slip, engobe, or glaze, applied by a number of techniques, including resist, mishima, and sanggam. Pots made be made by the coil, slab, or some other manual technique, or on a potter's wheel. Ceramic Shell Mold This is a casting process which involves a sand and resin mold making mixture, which takes weeks to produce a final sculpture. There are at least a dozen stages in the shell mold process. Certificate of Authenticity Certifies the authenticity of an individual piece in an edition and states the current market value. Chalk pastels The most widely used form of pastel, soft chalk pastels are brightly-colored and easily blended. Charcoal Charcoal refers to the drawing utensil employed by artists as a medium for sketches, finished works, and under-drawings for paintings. The black and crumbly nature of charcoal produces a freer and less dense line than graphite. Check A partial split in the woods grain. Occurs when there is uneven shrinkage, which most commonly extends across the rings of annual growth. These lengthwise separations usually result from stress due to air or kiln-drying. Chiaroscuro (Ke-ära-skooro) In drawing, painting, and the graphic arts, the rendering of forms through a balanced contrast between light and dark areas. The technique which was introduced during the Renaissance, is effective in creating an illusion of depth and space around the principal figures in a composition. Leonardo Da Vinci and Rembrandt were painters who excelled in the use of this technique. Chine Colle A chine colle print is created by affixing layers of thinner sheets of paper to a heavier sheet, and then making an intaglio impression. The thinner top sheets take the impression much more easily than a heavier paper, creating a sense of depth in the printed image, both physically and visually. Chinoiserie Western interpretations of Chinese fine and decorative, art in a variety of media. Chromogenic A color photographic processes in which a traditional silver image is first formed, and then later replaced with a colored dye image. Chromolithography This term refers to any lithograph which is printed in color. A chromolithograph requires a separate printing for each color. Cibachrome A color photograph based on the silver dye-bleach system. The necessary colors (azo dyes) are built into the emulsion layers. These colors are bleached out where not needed during developing. Azo dyes produce more brilliant colors and have greater stability and resistance to light than any other current process. Ilford has renamed its process Ilfochrome. Civil War/Reconstruction (1850-1877) The group of artists who depicted the American Civil War and Reconstruction periods in their work. Notable artists include Conrad Wise Chapman, Winslow Homer, James Hope, Thomas Nast, and William Aiken Walker. Cloisonne A process involving the affixing wires to a metal surface to form a design, and then filling those areas with different colored enamels. COBRA (1948-1951) The European avant-garde movement active from 1948-1951 was the name created from the initials of the members’ home cities of Copenhagen (Co), Brussels (Br), and Amsterdam (A). They had an expressive style which focused on social and political issues. Collaboration A working arrangement between an artist and another person, group or institution. Present throughout art history, collaborations are considered unusual today when artists tend to be valued for their individual voice and contribution to society. SOme artists even form long-term working partnerships with other artists- these are seen as distinct from collaborations which are often temporary. Collage Artwork created by securing pieces of paper, fabric or other materials onto a substrate. The word collage derives from the French, coller, which means to glue. Though basically two-dimensional, it may have a sculptural effect. Collodion Negative A collodion negative is produced by the colorless, high quality duplication process developed by Frederick Scott Archer and Gustave Le Gray in 1850. Colonial Period (1600-1763) Art during the Colonial Period in North America did not possess the high quality of other arts at this time. The 17th century painters were naive and unknown, but often created charming landscapes and portraits. Color (1) Used to refer to perceived qualities that result from the response of vision to the wavelength of reflected or transmitted light. (2) Describes images that have hues, as opposed to black, white and gray tones only and the processes used to make them. Color Field Painting (Late 1950s-1960s) An off-shoot style of Abstract Expressionism distinguished by areas of flat single colors. They differed from the Abstract Expressionists in that they eliminated the personal subject matter and gestural paint application associated with the previous movement. Some of the color field painters included Mark Rothko, Barnett Newman and Clyfford Still. Color Wheel A spectrum of colors placed in a circle including the three primary colors: red, yellow and blue, and the secondary colors: orange, green and purple. Colors opposite each other on the wheel are complementary colors. Colored Pencil Colored pencils are hand-held writing or drawing instruments typically used to create designs on paper. Complementary Color Complementary colors are the primary and secondary colors opposite each other on the color wheel. For example, red and green, blue and orange, and yellow and purple are all complementary colors. Composite Composite materials are made from two or more substances with significantly different properties. Conceptual Art (1960s-1970s) Art created primarily for the ideas and concepts involved instead of aesthetic pleasure. Conservation (preservation) In framing, it is the careful maintenance and protection of works of art. In conservation (preservation) framing, using materials and procedures that will have no adverse effects on a piece of artwork and will protect the artwork from external damage. Constructivism (1913-1930) The branch of abstract art founded in Russia. The constructivist members believed that art should directly reflect the industrial world. Therefore, the movement dismissed "pure" art in favor of art as an instrument for socialist society. Contemporary (1945-Present) Contemporary art, or works created post-World War II, is recognized as one of the most creative periods in art history. Media includes paintings, works on paper, photographs, sculptures, video & sound art and installation. Contemporary Realism (1960s) This term refers to the post-abstract movement which focused on a straightforward and realistic approach to art. Notable artists of this period include William Bailey, Neil Welliver and Philip Pearlstein. Continuous Casting A non-expendable casting method, continuous casting is used for high-volume production of metal sections. In this technique, the cast shape is continuously withdrawn through the bottom of the mold so that the specific dimensions of the mold do not determine the length of the sculpture. Contour This term refers to the outline defining a specific form. Contrapposto This phrase refers to a specific stance where the human body has a weight shift borne on one leg. Copper Copper is a reddish-brown metal. Copper surfaces are often finished with patina which can range from brown to green. Copyright Exclusive rights to reproduce, sell and distribute a work, prepare derivative works and display the work publicly. Corrosion / Pitting Corrosion is a chemical reaction between a material (usually metal) and its environment, which produces a deterioration of the materials properties. In some instances, corrosion can occur in a small or confined area in the form of pits on a metal surface. Pitting is an extreme, concentrated attack on a material which may take months, or even years, to become visible. Crackle The network of fissures or cracks in a finish layer such as varnish, lacquer, or shellac, due to age degradation, expansion and contraction from climate changes, and other causes. Crazing In ceramics, a mismatch in the thermal expansion between the glaze of an item and its physical body often causes small hairline cracks of the glazed surface, which can potentially compromise the pieces structural integrity. Craquelure A network of fine cracks on a paintings surface, typically due to elemental expansion, contraction , and age. Crayon Crayons are sticks of colored wax used for writing and drawing. Creases Occur when a material has been folded or bent, creating a line or ridge on the surface without breaking or tearing. Critique A critical review or commentary, especially one dealing with works of art or literature. In art, a critique is the act of reviewing or critically discussing a work of art. In addition, a work of art itself can criticize a specific idea or express a critical idea or opinion. Cubism Early 20th century: Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque invented Cubism between 1907 and 1914 and, in the process, threw out the painting 'rulebook'. They were chiefly inspired by the French Post-Impressionist painter Paul Cézanne, who once said that "nature should be treated as cylinders and cones". Picasso and Braque created pictures with fractured perspective that didn't imitate nature. Cyanotype Cyanotype is an older printing method which uses a monochrome photographic process to produce a cyan-blue print.

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Dada (1916-1924) A cultural movement that began in Switzerland during World War I. Encompassing all of the arts and concentrating on anti-war statements, the Dada movement aimed to destroy the traditional values in art. Its leading artists included Duchamp, Picabia and Schwitters, and it formed the base for Surrealism. Daguerreotype The Daguerreotype was the first commercial photographic process. Named for Louis-Jacques Monde Daguerre, it is a positive print on a light-sensitive copper plate. Deckle Edge Deckle edges are irregular and ragged edges on hand-made paper. Decorative Art Arts traditionally defined as ornamental or functional such as furniture and ceramics. Decoupage Art produced by decorating a surface with cutouts and then coating it with several layers of varnish or lacquer. Design The selection and arrangement of the formal elements in a work of art; the expression of the artist’s conception in terms of a composition. Der Blaue Reiter (1911-1914) The movement organized by Vasily Kandinsky in Munich, Germany. Der Blaue Reiter, "The Blue Rider," consisted of a group of nine artists who shared an interest in the power of color. Deterioration Any reduction of quality, use or aesthetics due to physical impairment. Die Brucke (1905-1913) This term refers to the German Expressionist counterpart of Fauvism. Die Brucke artists believed in the bridge between modernity and barbarism and depicted this irony with bright, raw colors. Die Casting In this non-expendable casting method, molten metals are forced into steel molds, or dies. Digital Print Digital photography refers to electronically captured images composed of digital values, or pixels. Iris prints, giclee prints, and digital archival prints are three examples of popular digital printing methods. Diptych (1) A set of two prints making one complete image. (2) An ancient writing tablet consisting of two pieces of wood or ivory hinged together, with the inner sides waxed for writing on with a stylus. Dry Brushing Technique used in paintings using more pigment then water. Drypoint Often used in combination with engraving or etching techniques, lines are scratched or gouged onto a metal plate creating a burr. The raised burr is quite pronounced and is not eliminated when printing, resulting in a heavier line than with engraving alone. Dutch School (1600-1670) Artists of the Dutch School focused on portraying their national pride through genre scenes, portraits, still life, landscapes, townscapes, and seascapes. Unlike the other movements of the 17th century, the Dutch school artists had more freedom and flexibility in what they created. Dye Destruction Print Dye destruction prints are characterized by their vibrant color. These prints are created using three emulsion layers, each one specifically sensitized to a different primary color and containing a dye relevant to that color. During the process, different information is recorded from each layer creating the final image in which three layers are perceived as one. Dye Transfer This is one of the most permanent color processes. This method gives maximum control of color, balance and contrast for color prints or transparencies. Dye Transfer Print Dye transfer prints are created from three separate negatives by photographing the original negative through red, green, and blue filters. The result is a richly colored image on gelatin-coated paper.

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Early Republic (1790-1820) Art created during the Early Republic in North America. The majority of these works were landscapes and genre scenes. Earthworks / Land Art (1960s-1980s) In the late 1960s and 1970s, sculptors began to take art back to nature. They worked outdoors using what they found to fashion earthworks and land art. Leading artists in the Land Art movement include Robert Smithson, Richard Long, Michael Heizer and Dennis Oppenheim. Ecole de Paris (1910-1950) The Ecole de Paris was a group unified in their rebelliousness against academism. Unlike the majority of schools at the time, they did not adhere to a specific style and technique. Embossing Embossing is the process of creating an impression of an image that results in a raised surface. This can be done alone (blind embossing) or over an already printed image. Emerging Artists Young artists with specialized training in his or her field. They are at an early stage in his or her career with a modest independent body of work, but lack the exposure of an artist with a more mature career. Emulsion A photosensitive coating, usually of silver halide grains in a thin gelatin layer, on photographic film, paper, or glass. Enamel Enamel is colored glass bonded to a metal surface by firing. Enamel paint air dries to a hard, usually glossy, finish. Typically the term "enamel paint" is used to describe oil-based covering products, usually with a significant amount of gloss in them, however recently many latex or water-based paints have adopted the term as well. The term today means "hard surfaced paint" and usually is in reference to paint brands of higher quality, floor coatings of a high gloss finish, or spray paints. Encaustic The process of painting by mixing dry pigments with molten wax and varying amounts of Damar varnish. Hot wax painting is easily manipulated, resulting in a variety of textures and color combinations. Engraving Lines cut into a plate by hand with a steel burin or graver; no acid is used. The metal which is displaced in cutting is smoothed with a scraper which results in crisp, meticulous lines. Then the entire plate is thoroughly inked, with care taken to force the ink down into all of the lines, completely filling them. The surface is wiped clean, leaving the incised lines filled. A press is used to transfer the image onto paper. En grisaille En grisaille denotes an entirely gray monochromatic composition. Etching A printing process. A metal plate is covered with an acid-resisting ground. The design is scratched through this ground, exposing the metal beneath. The plate is then immersed in an acid bath, causing the scratched or exposed areas to be eaten away. The plate is wiped clean, inked and the higher surfaces cleaned again, allowing the ink to remain in the incised areas. A press is then used to transfer the image onto paper. Ephemeral The suggestion that something is short-lived or endures for only a very short time. In visual art, performance art or environmental art viewed outdoors is often created with the understanding that i will be viewed for a finite amount of time. Expendable Mold Casting Expendable mold casting includes most methods which use mold making materials such as sand, shell, plaster and investment. A characteristic of these methods is their use of temporary, non-reusable molds. Expressionism (1905-1925) The movement which manipulates the visual elements of an image to convey intense subjective feelings. In expressionist art, color is highly intense, brushwork is free and application of paint is heavy and textured. Expressionism presents the world under an utterly subjective perspective, violently distorting it to obtain an emotional effect and vividly transmit personal moods and ideas. Expressionist artists sought to express the emotional experience of being alive rather than its physical reality.

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Fashion Photography This term refers to the genre of photography entirely devoted to recording clothing and other fashion objects. Fading / Bleaching Loss of brightness and/or brilliance of color. Occurs when excessive ultra-violet light exposure causes the surface of the piece to become discolored and loose brilliance. Fauvism (1905-1908) This term refers to the movement identified by its high energy and brilliant colors which conveyed an intense visual experience. Originating in France, around 1905, Henri Mattise and his followers combined bold primary colors with dynamic brushwork, winning the label of Fauves, or "Wild Beasts." Fauvism is often seen as a combination of the Post-Impressionism of Van Gogh and the Neo-Impressionism of Seurat. Figure drawing Figure drawing is a type of drawing that depicts the human form. Figure painting Figure painting is a type of painting that depicts the human form. Figure-ground relationship This phrase refers to the way objects and figures are related within the picture plane. Fine Art The term fine art describes an art form developed primarily for aesthetics and/or concept rather than utility. Today, the fine arts commonly include visual and performing art forms, such as painting, sculpture, music, dance, theatre, architecture, photography and printmaking. However, in some institutes of learning or in museums fine art, and frequently the term fine arts (pl.) as well, are associated exclusively with the visual art forms. Art is often a synonym for fine art in this sense, as employed in the term "art gallery". Historically, the fine arts were limited to painting, sculpture, architecture and engraving. Fluxus (1960s) Fluxus, literally meaning “to flow,” refers to the movement during the 1960s which combined a variety of techniques and media in the visual arts, music, literature, and design. Focal point The focal point of an image is the area in a composition to which the eye returns most naturally. Folio This term refers to a large sheet of paper that becomes four separate pieces of a book when folded and cut. Folk Art Folk art refers to regional handicrafts, ornamental works and fine art produced by people with no formal art training. Found Object This term refers to objects found by an artist in his or her environment and presented as a work of art completely unaltered or combined and/or modified to create a final piece. Foreground The foreground is the area that is closest to the picture plane in a two-dimensional work of art. Foreshortening The diminishing of certain dimensions of an object or figure in order to depict it in a correct spatial relationship. In realistic depiction, foreshortening is necessary because although lines and planes that are perpendicular to the observer's line of vision (central visual ray), and the extremities of which are equidistant from the eye, will be seen at their full size, when they are revolved away from the observer they will seem increasingly shorter. Thus for example, a figure's arm outstretched toward the observer must be foreshortened--the dimension of lines, contours and angles adjusted--in order that it not appear hugely out of proportion. The term foreshortening is applied to the depiction of a single object, figure or part of an object or figure, whereas the term perspective refers to the depiction of an entire scene. Formalism Formalism is the analysis and writing of artistic form and the use of formal elements rather than content. Formline This term refers specifically to Native American art where a line defines a specific space or form. Found Object Sculpture Found object sculpture incorporates natural and/or man-made objects that are not typically considered art in and of themselves, but when combined by an artist, the result acquires aesthetic value. Foxing Reddish-brown mold spots that appear on paper and textiles due to water exposure or high levels of humidity. Fresco A painting technique, perfected at the time of the Renaissance, in which pigments suspended in water are applied to a damp plaster surface. As the pigments dry, they become a part of the plaster or wall surface. Frontispiece This term refers to an illustration directly opposite or preceding the title page of a book. Frieze A frieze is the middle element of an entablature between the architrave and the cornice. The frieze is typically decorated with sculpture, painting or moldings. Futurism (1909-1918) The Italian movement influenced by Cubism in the early 1900s. Futurism attacked everything that was old and promoted the modern world of industry and technology. The leading artists of this movement included Balla, Boccioni and Severini.

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Geometric Abstract Art (20th Century) Geometric Abstract Art refers to the form of abstract art based on the use of simple geometric forms. Kandinsky was the forerunner of this non-objective painting style. Other followers include Kasimir, Malevish, and Piet Mondrian. Genre Genre refers to a type or category of artistic form, subject, technique, style or medium. Genre Scene A genre scene can be found in paintings, prints or works on paper, and depicts scenes from everyday life, domestic interiors, parties, inn scenes and street scenes. German Expressionism (Early 20th century) German Expressionism encompasses the Die Brucke and Der Blaue Reiter movements in Germany. Gesso Gesso is made from glue, gypsum and/or chalk forming the ground layer of wood paneling or the priming layer of canvas. Gesturalism This very expressive type of painting is identifiable because each line signifies the artist's physical gesture and emotion at the moment the paint was applied to the painting’s surface. Gicleé (gee-clay) A French term meaning "spraying of ink." Printing is directly from information obtained from the original painting, Iris Printers spray microscopic drops of color on to a fine art paper or canvas. Displaying the full color spectrum, these artworks have vibrant, brilliant colors and a velvety texture. This gives the finished product the look and texture of an original painting. Gilded Age (1877-1900) The Gilded Age took place during the post-Civil War and post-Reconstruction eras in the United States. During this period, Americans saw extraordinary growth. Artists such as John Singer Sargent, Winslow Homer, Childe Hassam, Augustus Saint-Gaudens and Albert Pinkham Ryder created some of the most celebrated works of this time. Gilding Gilding is the application of gold leaf or gold pigment for decorative purposes. Glazing Glazing refers to the outermost layer found on ceramics that protect them from water and give them a decorative quality. Glass Glass refers to a uniform amorphous solid material created from the rapid cooling of molten materials. Gold Leaf A very thin sheet of beaten gold used in gilding. Also referred to as "loose leaf." Gold leaf is available in 12-23 karat gold. Each leaf is cut to a standard 3 3/8 inches square and has a thickness of approximately 1/300,000 of an inch. Gold leaf is packaged in books of 25 leaves, each leaf separated by tissue paper. A pack or box of gold leaf contains 20 books, for a total of 500 leaves. Gothic (1100-1600) Gothic art refers to the medieval movement found in a variety of mediums ranging from architecture, sculpture, panel painting, stained glass and manuscripts. Often, gothic works told both Christian and secular narratives through imagery. Gouache Painting medium similar to watercolor characterized by pigments suspended in water. However, due to the presence of chalk, gouache produces a heavier and more opaque image than watercolor. Graffiti (1980s-present) Refers to the movement founded during the 1980s where graffiti art, or images and letters usually spray-painted on property, became an art form worthy of display in galleries and exhibitions. Graphic Art drawing, painting or printmaking Graphite Graphite is a medium known for its greasy texture and metallic gray color which can be easily removed with an eraser. Ground line Ground line is the baseline that denotes the plane in which a figure stands in a work of art.

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Hard-edge Painting (Late 1950s) Hard-edge painting refers to the movement consisting of rough, straight edges that were geometrically consistent. It is characterized by rich solid colors, neat surfaces and a collection of multiple forms on the canvas. It is often associated with Geometric Abstraction, Post-Painterly Abstraction and Color Field Painting. Harlem Renaissance (1920s-1930s) The Harlem Renaissance was a time of flourishing art, literature and drama during the 1920s and 1930s, in which African American novelists, poets and painters produced works focusing on their own culture instead of European and white American society. While the movement was centered in Harlem, New York City, it affected many urban centers throughout the United States. High relief High relief is a type of sculpture in which the design is carved deeply enough suggesting that the parts are detached from the background. History/historical Painting A historical painting is directly based on historical, mythological or biblical references. It is considered one of the noblest forms of art and conveys an intellectual idea in an extravagant manner. Hors Commerce (H.C.) Hors Commerce (Not for Trade) traditionally were the graphics pulled with the regular edition, but were marked by the artist for business use only. These graphics were used for entering exhibitions and competitions, but today, these graphics generally are allowed into distribution through regular channels. Hue Hue refers to pure color. Hudson River School (1825-1875) Refers to a group of American painters during the mid-19th century who demonstrated a common belief and outlook on life. Their inspiration was rooted in aesthetics and romanticism as seen through their depiction of landscapes in the Hudson River Valley, Catskill Mountains, Adirondack Mountains and White Mountains of New York and New England.

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Icon Icons are any material representation of a sacred figure or event. Iconoclasm This term refers to the banning or destruction of icons and religious art. Iconography This term refers to the study and interpretation of the subject matter of art. Illustration Board A sheet of cardboard with a sheet of drawing paper mounted on one side. Illustration boards are mostly used by commercial artists Image (1) The printed or colored portion of a print. (2) A physical likeness or representation of a person, animal or thing; photographed, painted, sculpted or otherwise made visible. Impasto Paint applied in outstanding heavy layers or strokes; also, any thickness or roughness of paint or deep brush marks, as distinguished from a flat, smooth surface. Impressionism (1874-1876) Impressionism is the term applied to an art movement in France during the late 19th century that focused on landscapes and scenes of everyday life. The movement was very anti-academic in style, and often disobeyed the traditional rules of the Salon. It can be identified by their treatment of light, color, and brushwork. Leading artists of this movement included Monet, Pissarro, Renoir, Degas and Manet, among others. Incising Incising is a technique in which a design is cut into a hard surface using a sharp tool. Indentations Any chip, dent, gouge, tear, abrasion, or loss occurring from force. Ink / Wash Also known as East Asian brush painting, ink/wash painting was developed in China during the Tang Dynasty (618-907). Artists typically grind their own ink by combining water with densely packed ink sticks on a grinding stone. Ink and wash paintings require a highly skilled artist since brushstrokes cannot be erased. Inlay Inlay refers to the process of setting materials into the surface of an object composed of a different material. Inpainting Application of paint to re-establish an items visual continuity. Can be used to replace paint loss or disguise craquelure. Instaining Application of stain, typically to a wooden surface, in the area of a loss to re-establish an items visual continuity. Installation This term refers to a type of mixed media artwork which typically occupies a large portion, an entire room, or gallery space. Intaglio Methods Intaglio includes the engraving, etching and drypoint methods of printmaking, and is produced via cuts made in a metal surface. These incised areas are then filled with ink and rolled through a press, thus transferring an image to paper. All intaglio prints have platemarks. International Gothic At the end of the Middle Ages, artists painted more natural images that were less stiff and two-dimensional. Artists include: Gentile de Fabriano, André Beauneveu and Bernardo Martorell. Investment or Lost-Wax Casting Investment casting, or the lost-wax process, is one of the oldest metal-forming methods. It is often an expensive process, but the intricate details and contours of the cast are well worth it. In this process, a wax original is enclosed in an outer mold. The wax is then melted and evacuated from the mold under high temperatures, and the resulting voids are filled with metal, producing the final sculpture. Iron Iron is a heavy, ductile, and magnetic metal, which is often used in sculpture. Islamic Art Islamic art includes arts produced from the 7th century to present time by people who have lived in territories inhabited by culturally Islamic populations. It encompasses a variety of media including architecture, calligraphy, painting, ceramics, metalwork, woodwork, glass and jewelry from all over the Islamic world.

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Japonisme This term refers to the influence of Japan on European art, especially during the Impressionist and Post-Impressionist movements. Juxtaposition The state or position of being placed close together or side-by-side, so as to permit comparison or contrast. Visual artists often use juxtaposition to reference existing images or ideas, but suggest new meanings.

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Kiln A kiln is an oven which heats to exceptionally high temperatures, typically used for the firing of clay and casting of glass. Kitsch Excessively garish or sentimental art; usually considered in bad taste.

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Late Additions When an artist authorizes a print re-strike with or without changes to the original plate. Linear Describing a quality related to the use of line in painting or sculpture; can refer to directional movement in composition, or the actual use of the element of line in the image or sculpture, as contrasted with the use of mass or shape forms. Linocut The linocut is a 20th century variation on the woodcut. It is created in the same manner, except that a piece of linoleum, which is soft and pliable, is used instead of wood. Lithography In the graphic arts, a method of printing from a prepared flat stone, metal or plastic plate, invented in the late eighteenth century. A drawing is made on the stone or plate with a greasy crayon or tusche, and then washed with water. When ink is applied it sticks to the greasy drawing but runs off (or is resisted by) the wet surface allowing a print - a lithograph - to be made of the drawing. The artist, or other print maker under the artist's supervision, then covers the plate with a sheet of paper and runs both through a press under light pressure. For color lithography separate drawings are made for each color. Local Color The actual color of a form or object, uninfluenced by the effects of light or reflected color. For instance, a vase may be turquoise (the local color), but appear pale blue because of sunlight hitting it in certain places; dark blue because of areas in shadow; and many subtle color shades in certain areas because of reflected light from surrounding surfaces. Low relief Low relief is a type of sculpture in which the figures project less than half their true depth from the background. Latin-American Artists Latin-American art covers nearly 500 years of artwork ranging from the Colonial period through the 21st century. Some prominent Latin-American artists include Frida Kahlo, Diego Rivera, Matta, Wifredo Lam, Emiliano Di Cavalcanti, Fernando Botero, Claudio Bravo, Joaquin Torres-Garcia and Rufino Tamayo. Les Nabis (1891-1899) Refers to the group formed as an offshoot of Symbolism. The artists saw themselves as initiators of art as found in the soul of the artist. They believed that a painting should be balanced and, as a result, single colors and patterns were separated by strong contours. Members of this movement included Paul Serusier, Pierre Bonnard, and Edouard Vuillard. Limited Edition The issue of something collectible, such as prints, limited to a certain quantity of numbered copies. The first number indicates the number of the piece; the second number indicates the total quantity of the edition, e.g., 135/250. Lithograph A generic term used to designate a print made by a planographic process, such as an original lithograph done on a lithographic stone or a commercial print made by a photo-mechanical process Lithography The traditional planographic printing method which involves drawing or painting with greasy crayons or inks on a limestone block. The surface is then moistened with water. An oily ink is applied to the stone and adheres only to the drawing. The ink is repelled by the water which has soaked into the areas around the drawing. The print is pulled by pressing paper against the inked drawing, using a press. Variations of the technique are widely used in commercial reproductions. Lyrical A quality applied to various art forms (poetry, prose, visual art, dance and music), referring to a certain ethereal, musical, expressive, or poetic quality of artistic expression. Although difficult to define, when a visual work of art is described as having a lyrical quality, it means that it possesses a certain spiritual or emotional quality; perhaps the color relationships may be said to "sing"; or the linear quality of directional movement may be of a sensitive and expressive nature; or the work expresses a particularly profound, passionate or tender sentiment, perhaps related to romanticism or other lofty expression. Lyrical Abstraction (1960s-1970s) After World War II, artists in Europe believed that it was their duty to develop a new concept of humankind. This distinctive approach to painting became known as Lyrical Abstraction, or "art informal," and returned to the origins of art expressed through a simplistic manner.

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Magenta A printer’s name for red, in the four-color additive printing system which includes cyan, yellow and black. Magic Realism (1943-1950s) This term refers to the genre in which artists depicted extreme realism in the most ordinary subject matter. Also, magic realism is often associated with the post-expressionist movement. Manifesto In art, a public declaration or exposition in print of the theories and directions of a movement. The manifestos issued by various individual artists or groups of artists, in the first half of the twentieth century served to reveal their motivations and stimulated support for or reactions against them. Mannerism (1520-1600) Refers to the style developed during the 16th century, characterized by its focus on space and light, dramatic use of color and distorted space and perspective. It began around the end of the High Renaissance and lasted until the arrival of Baroque in 1600. Mannerist Mannerist art can be identified by elongated forms, unusual colors and lighting, and irrational spatial relationships. Mat Board A multi-ply board usually comprised of a core, adhesive, facing and backing paper. Commonly four-ply, but available in other thicknesses. May be rag board or made of wood fiber. The surface paper comes in a wide variety of colors. In framing, used to make the window mat and as a mounting board for artwork. Maquette In sculpture, a small model in wax or clay, made as a preliminary sketch, presented to a client for his approval of the proposed work, or entered in a competition for a prize or scholarship. The Italian equivalent of the term is bozzetto, meaning small sketch. Medieval (476-1453) Medieval art covers over 1000 years of art history through Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. It covered a variety of media and included many major art movements such as Early Christian Art, Celtic Art, Pre-Romanesque art and Carolingian art, among others. Medium (1) The specific tool and material used by an artist, e.g., brush and oil paint, chisel and stone. (2) The mode of expression employed by an artist, e.g., painting, sculpture, the graphic arts. (3) A liquid that may be added to a paint to increase its manipulability without decreasing its adhesive, binding or film-forming properties. Memorabilia Collection of objects that have a sentimental value. Metaphysical (1917-1920) Refers to the art movement created by Italian artists Giorgio de Chirico and Carlo Carra. Painters focused on a realist approach to dream-like views of Italian cityscapes. It also helped paved the way for the development of Dada and Surrealism. Mezzotint In this method of printmaking the artist creates a dark base on a metal plate using a cutting instrument called a "rocker." Then, using a scraper, the artist burnishes the plate in the areas in which he desires to achieve a lighter color. Finally, the artist inks the plate and rolls it through a press topped with a piece of paper to create the final image. Mid-Century and Contemporary Design Functional and ornamental pieces specifically from the middle of the 20th century to date, such as furniture and ceramics - typically designer signed. Militaria Refers to artifacts or replicas of military items which are collected for their historical significance such as helmets, uniforms, armour, coins or awards. Miniature A miniature is a detailed painting or drawing completed on a very small scale. Minimalism (1960s-1970s) The simplicity found in the use of basic shapes to create an image of great beauty. Minimalism was mostly three-dimensional, but Frank Stella’s paintings were a hallmark of this movement. Other important minimalists include Andre, Flavin, Judd, Lewitt, Morris and Serra. Mint Condition Describes artwork which is in the same condition as it was when originally finished, printed, etc. Taken from coinage, in the same condition as it was when it was minted Mirror Hanger A heavy duty hanging device attached to the back of a frame with screws, characterized by having a holding ring at the top through which a thin, narrow metal strip has been passed and folded in half. Missing Element Part of an item that has been lost. Mixed Media Painting A mixed media painting employs multiple media to create a final piece. For example, a work on canvas that combines paint, ink, and collage is considered a mixed media painting. Mixed Media Sculpture A mixed media sculpture employs multiple media to create a final piece. For example, the artist might have utilized both wood and metal to create the final product. Mixed Media Work on Paper A mixed media work on paper employs multiple media to create a final piece. Mixed Method Engraving This is a method of intaglio printmaking, which combines two or more methods. Modern (1880-1945) The term modernism generally refers to new forms of art that are more appropriate to the present time. Modern art has been identified as the succession of art movements by critics since Realism and culminating in abstract art up to 1945. By that time, modernism had become a dominant idea of art and the modernist viewpoint was theorized by the American art critic Clement Greenberg. Monochromatic A painting or drawing of different shades of one color. Monolith A monolith is a sculpture or piece of architecture created from a single block of stone. Monotype or Monoprint The monotype/monoprint incorporates both printmaking and painting, producing a single impression by using pressure to transfer a painted image to paper. Montage A picture made up of various proportions of existing pictures, such as photographs or prints, arranged so they join, overlap, or blend with one another. Mono-Ha (1960s-1970s) The Japanese group of artists working in the 1960s and 1970s, who used both natural and man-made materials in their work. They are best known for actually rearranged materials to achieve a final product instead of creating works from scratch. Monotype A one-of-a-kind print made by painting on a sheet or slab of glass and transferring the still-wet painting to a sheet of paper held firmly on the glass by rubbing the back of the paper with a smooth implement, such as a large hardwood spoon. The painting may also be done on a polished plate, in which case it may be either printed by hand or transferred to paper by running the plate and paper through an etching press. Mosaic A mosaic is a design created by affixing small pieces of color, or tesserae, made of marble, glass or ceramic to a base. Motif This term refers to the subject of a painting or a distinct element found in a work of art. Mural A mural is any type of painting created directly on a wall surface. Museum A building, place or institution devoted to the acquisition, conservation, study, exhibition and educational interpretation of objects having scientific, historical or artistic value. The word Museum is derived from the Latin muses, meaning "a source of inspiration," or "to be absorbed in one's thoughts."

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Narrative Narrative refers to a story which is told through a work of art. Naturalism (1870s-1890s) The realistic portrayal of objects in a natural setting. Some of the best known Naturalist artworks were of beautiful landscapes created after the Renaissance. Neo-Classicism (1750-1880) This movement was founded as a reaction against the Baroque and Rococo styles of the early 18th century, desired to return to the purity of the ancient arts of the Roman and Grecian cultures. Neo-Dada (1950s) Art work created during the 1950s resembling the original Dada movement in its methods. Neo-Dadaists used modern materials and popular imagery to deny the traditional and accepted ideas of aesthetics. Notable artists during this movement include Jasper Johns, Yves Klein, Robert Rauschenberg, Claes Oldenburg, and Jim Dine. They also helped pave the way for the Pop Art and Fluxus movement. Neo-Expressionism (Late 1970s-1980s) This term refers to the revival of expressionism in the 1980s. Neo-Expressionism took place in many countries and cultures, but the leading artists in the United States were Philip Guston and Julian Schnabel. Neo-Figurative Art (1960s) This term refers to the revival expressionist movement in the form of figurative art that emerged in the 1960s in Mexico. Neo-Impressionism (1886-1906) Late 19th century movement led by Georges Seurat and Paul Signac. Their works were innovative for their time and altered the use of color and line, compared to their Impressionist ancestors. Neo-Romanticism (1880-1910) Neo-romanticism refers to the movement based on the revival of romanticism in art and literature. Neue Sachlichkeit (1910s) The German art movement formed out of defiance against expressionism. It ended with the rise of the Nazis and covered a wide variety of media including the visual arts, literature, music and architecture. New Realism (1950-1960s) The movement founded by art critic Pierre Restany and painter Yves Klein which is often compared to the New York Pop Art movement for its critique of commercialized objects. Leading artists of this movement included Arman, Cesar, Christo, Tinguely and Daniel Spoerri. Nineteenth C. / Early Twentieth C. American Art Style (1800-1900) 19th Century American art consists of various artistic movements in America including Rococo, Classicism, Revolutionary art, Romanticism, Realism, Idealism, Impressionism, Neo-impressionism, Post Impressionism, Naturalism, Art Nouveau and Symbolism. Nineteenth C. European and British Art Style (1800-1900) 19th Century European and British art consists of various artistic movements in Europe including Rococo, Classicism, Revolutionary art, Spanish art, Romanticism, the Barbizon School, Realism, Orientalism, Idealism, Victorian, Impressionism, Neo-Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, Naturalism, Art Nouveau and Symbolism. The 19th century was a time of changing ideas revolving around the purpose of art, the appropriate choice of subject matter, the attitude between the artist and the public, the artist's relationship with nature and new technology's influence on art. Non-expendable Mold Casting Non-expendable mold casting differs from expendable in that the molds do not have to be reformed after their initial cast. A few of the specific methods include permanent, die, centrifugal, and continuous. Non-objective Non-objective works of art contain no representation of figures or objects. Non-Glare Glass Glass which has been etched on one or both sides, which defuses the light, resulting in a minimum of glare and reflection.

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Old Masters (14th to Early 19th Centuries) Masterpieces by the most famous Western artists from the 14th to the early 19th centuries including Raphael, Cranach, Titian, Velazquez, Van Dyck, Rembrandt, Hals, Reynolds, Canaletto, Gainsborough and Fragonard. Subject matter usually included still lifes, landscapes, genre paintings, portraits, religious and historical themes. Oeuvre This term refers to the total output of works by a given artist. Offset-Lithography A process in which the printed image is transferred, or offset, from one roller or plate to another and then transferred to the printing paper. Offset lithographs should be termed reproductions rather than originals prints. This process eliminates the need to draw the image in reverse on the stone or plate. Oil Paint Technique developed during the 15th and 16th centuries in which slow-drying paint is made by mixing color pigments with an oil base. Oil pastels Oil pastels have similar characteristics to chalk, or soft, pastels. However, they are difficult to blend and have a more buttery consistency. Op Art (Late 1950s-1960s) Op Art contrasted its Abstract Expressionist ancestor by creating a nonobjective art based entirely upon patterns of lines and colors which affected the viewer’s perception. Leading artists of this movement included Bridget Riley, Jesus Raphael, Soto and Victor Vasarely. Open Edition An edition having an unlimited number of prints in it. Orientalism (1838-1890s) Characterized by work influenced by the artistic styles and motifs of the Far East. Original A unique piece of artwork that cannot be exactly duplicated, e.g., an oil painting on canvas. While the image may be duplicated as a print, the reproduction is not oil paint on canvas. Other Cast Metals Other cast metals refer to a variety of unknown materials used for creating cast sculptures. Other Synthetic Metals Other synthetic metals refer to a variety of synthetic materials used to create sculptures. Outsider Art Refers to art created outside the boundaries of traditional culture. Broadly, it includes folk and primitive art as well as works created by the mentally ill, disturbed individuals or prisoners. Overlay In animation art, a portion of a scene, generally a foreground element, painted on or applied to a cel and laid over the action to create the illusion of depth. Overpainting Occurs when a restorer does not possess the correct skills to retouch a damaged area on an item and extends beyond the confines of a loss into undamaged areas. Oversize Describes the size of a frame or materials that are larger than standard 32- by 40-inch mat board.

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Pastel Pastels are sticks of color, typically made from oil or chalk. Artists use pastels to create a soft and delicate image. The medium can often be unforgiving, as it is difficult for the artist to fix a mistake. Page orientation The way in which a rectangular picture is oriented for normal viewing. The two most common types of orientation are portrait and landscape. The specific word definition comes from the fact that a close-up portrait of a person's face and upper body is more fitting for a canvas or photo where the height of the display area is greater than the width, and is more common for the pages of a book. Landscape originally described artistic outdoor scenes where a wide view area is needed, but the upper part of the painting would be mostly sky and so is omitted. Paint Loss The absence of paint in areas where it was previously located, due to age and other influences. Painterly Painterly refers to works characterized by large brushwork and patches of color. Painting The practice of applying pigment combined with a binding agent to a surface such as paper, canvas, wood, glass or other. Painting Varnished During the restoration process, the restorer will often varnish the surface of an oil or acrylic painting to protect the image from dirt, dust, smoke, grease, or other pollutants. Palette (1) A non-absorbent surface on which to mix paint. (2) The set of colors on such a surface. 3) The range of colors a given artist or school of art prefers. Palette Knife A thin blade of varying flexibility set in a handle; used for mixing paints or applying them to a surface. Paper A substance made from cotton, wood or other fibrous material, usually in thin sheets, used for writing, printing or drawing. Paper Grain The direction in which most of the fibers in a piece of paper are oriented and the axis along which the paper tears and flexes most easily. Grain is usually found only in machine made papers, although it is also present in some handmade oriental papers. (24) Parchment (1) A translucent or opaque material made from split skins of small animals, usually lambs or kids (goat) that have been limed, void of hair, scraped and dried under tension to produce a fine, thin, strong surface for writing, bookbinding or other uses. (2) Paper with a texture resembling true parchment. Pastel A colored crayon that consists of pigment mixed with just enough of a aqueous binder to hold it together; a work of art produced by pastel crayons; the technique itself. Pastels vary according to the volume of chalk contained...the deepest in tone are pure pigment. Pastel is the simplest and purest method of painting, since pure color is used without a fluid medium and the crayons are applied directly to the pastel paper. Pastels are called paintings rather than drawings, for although no paint is used, the colors are applied in masses rather than in lines. Patina The result of natural or artificial oxidation on a surface, which produces corrosion, texture, or a thin layer of color that can range in hue. In bronze sculpture, patina specifically refers to the alteration of the surface by the sculptor with acid or other chemicals. Permanent Mold Casting A form of non-expendable casting, permanent mold casting is typically used for iron, aluminum, magnesium, and copper-based alloys. It is highly automated and requires weeks of preparation before the casting begins. Perspective The representation of three-dimensional objects on a flat surface so as to produce the same impression of distance and relative size as that received by the human eye. In one-point linear prespective, developed during the fifteenth century, all parallel lines in a given visual field converge at a single vanishing point on the horizon. In aerial or atmospheric perspective, the relative distance of objects is indicated by gradations of tone and color and by variations in the clarity of outlines. Photogenic Drawing Photogenic drawing was the first cameraless photographic process, discovered by William Fox Talbot in 1839. Talbot used a high quality sheet of paper which was immersed in a solution of table salt. After the paper dried, he brushed it with silver nitrate creating a light sensitive surface and placed small objects such as leaves and lace on the paper. The result was a light image of the object against a dark background, or a negative image. Photogram This process, created without the use of a camera, records photo-sensitive material by exposing it to light. Similar to an X-ray, the final image records silhouetted images on photographic paper. Photography The art of recording images by capturing light on surfaces sensitized by a chemical process. Photogravure Developed in the 1830s by Henry Fox Talbot, photogravure is an intaglio printmaking process in which an image is transferred to a flat, etched copper plate, hand-inked and printed. Photojournalism / Documentary The use of photography to tell a story. Often, photojournalists are in the presence of war, rioting or other risks while documenting events. Photo-Lithography A printing technique in which a negative is exposed to a photo-sensitized lithographic plate, the image is then developed on the plate. Non-image areas are desensitized and the image area becomes an ink attracting surface. The plate is inked and printed in the normal manner. Photomontage This term refers to a single image formed from assembling many existing images such as photographs or prints. Photo-Realism (1960-1970) The genre of painting which resembles photography. It became a dominant movement during the late 1960s and 1970s. Photo-Secession (1902-1917) To raise the standards of photography as an art form, a group of photographers started the Photo-Secession movement led by Alfred Stieglitz. The members of this group believed in showing a pure image, ultimately leaving the photographs unaltered with the exception of cropping. Picture Frame A structure, usually of wood or metal in which a painting, print or other object is enclosed to improve or enhance its appearance, to isolate it from a wall or to link it to a decor, as well as to support and protect it. Picture Hanger A device attached to the wall on which the frame is hung or attached to the molding of a frame by which the picture is hung. Picture Plane This phrase denotes the spatial plane corresponding to the actual surface of the painting. Picture Wire A soft braided or solid wire, available in several thicknesses to support various weights, which may be coated with flexible plastic, attached to the back of framed pictures. Pigment A pigment is the coloring agent in paint or dye. Planographic Methods Planographic methods include all types of prints, which are drawn on a flat surface and run through a press. Plaster Plaster is a dry powdery medium which, when mixed with water, forms a hardened paste. In the visual arts, it is most often used to cast clay models for sculpture. Plaster Casting Similar to sand casting, patterns are sprayed with a thin film to prevent the mold from sticking, and then covered in plaster, which fills the small spaces around the pattern. The form is then removed and filled with metals such as aluminum, zinc and copper. Platinum Print Created in 1873 by William Willis, platinum prints utilize the light sensitivity of iron salts to produce an image. During the developing process, chemical reactions dissolve the iron salts and replace them with platinum. Platinum prints were extremely popular until the 1920s when the price of platinum rose and became too expensive. They are valued for their range of tonal variations and permanence. Plein air When a work is created plein air, it means it has been painted outdoors. Pochoir Defined as "stencil" in French, a pochoir print is hand-colored and created with a series of carefully cut stencils. This method of printmaking was most prevalent during the early part of the 20th century in Paris and frequently used for fashion plates during the Art Deco period. Pointillism A branch of French Impressionism in which the principle of optical mixture or broken color was carried to the extreme of applying color in tiny dots or small, isolated strokes. Forms are visible in a pointillist painting only from a distance, when the viewer's eye blends the colors to create visual masses and outlines. The inventor and chief exponent of pointillism was George Seurat (1859-1891); the other leading figure was Paul Signac (1863-1935). Polaroid Polaroid refers to the synthetic plastic sheet used to polarize light, typically associated with the instant camera and self-developing film. Pop Art (Late 1950s-1960s) This term refers to the art movement which took its style and subject matter from popular culture. Its sources were movies, television, comic books and advertisements. Pop art is epitomized in the works of Roy Lichtenstein, Andy Warhol and Claes Oldenburg. Porcelain Porcelain is a hard, translucent, white ceramic fired at high temperatures. Portrait A painting, sculpture, drawing, photograph or other representation of a particular individual. Portraiture A painting, photograph, sculpture, or other artistic representation of a person, in which the face and its expression is predominant. The intent is to display the likeness, personality, and even the mood of the person. For this reason, in photography a portrait is generally not a snapshot, but a composed image of a person in a still position. A portrait often shows a person looking directly at the painter or photographer, in order to most successfully engage the subject with the viewer. Post-Impressionism (1880-1900) The movement branching off of Impressionism in 1910. Post-Impressionist artists came to reject Impressionism's emphasis on the strong depiction of light and color and instead developed more abstract styles. Artists such as Paul Cezanne, Paul Gauguin, Vincent van Gogh, Georges Seurat and Paul Signac were highly influential post-impressionists who paved the way for many of the early 20th century’s modern painters. Post-Minimalism (Late 1960s) This term refers to a varied approach to Minimalism which challenged the idea of art as static and durable. Eva Hesse is known for her malleable enabling the pieces to take on different dimensions. Postmodern The postmodern art movement was formed as a contradiction to typical modernism. It encompassed movements such as Installation art, Conceptual Art and Multimedia. It also branched out into diverse and unknown media such as bricolage, collage, simplification, depictions of popular culture and performance art. Poster (1) An inexpensive printed reproduction of a piece of artwork. (2) A placard or print intended for posting in a public place as an advertisement. Posthumous A posthumous print was created after an artist's death. Post-War European Figuration (Post World War II) Postwar European Figuration included artists such as Francis Bacon, Jean Dubuffet, Alberto Giacometti, Rene Iche, Marino Marini and Henry Moore. Pottery Pottery includes all wares made of clay except porcelain. Pre-Raphaelite (1848-1860s) Considered to be one of the first avant-garde movements in art, the Pre-Raphaelites sought to reject the traditional and academic styles of Raphael and Michelangelo. Some notable Pre-Raphaelite artists include James Collison, William Holman Hunt, John Everett Millais and Dante Gabriel Rossetti. Primary Colors Red, yellow and blue. No combination of other colors will yield a primary color; combinations of the primary colors yield all other colors Primitivism Many modern European artists became fascinated with the tribal arts from Africa, the South Pacific, Indonesia and early European folk art. These artists were interested in primitive art as a way to search for a simpler and more basic way of life, differing from that of the west. Notable artists such as Picasso and Gauguin, as well as artists in the Expressionist movements, were prominent in this movement. Print A generic term used to describe an impression made on paper from a block, plate or film negative, for example. Printmaking Process in which a work can be recreated from a single image. Propaganda Propaganda, or political art, refers to artworks created for the purpose of political awareness often focusing on themes relating to socialism, World War I, and World War II. Profile (1) The outline of the exposed surface of a molding cross-section. (2) An outline of the contour of a face, viewed from the side. Provenance A record of previous ownership and previous locations for a work of art. Purism (c. 1918) Refers to the art movement established around 1918 in France by Amedee Ozenfant and Charles-Edouard Jeanneret, who believed in the power of art to change the world.

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Rag Board Mat board from non-wood products such as cotton linters or cotton which are naturally lignin free, stable and durable. Made with a non-acidic (pH neutral or alkaline if buffered) sizing. Rag Paper Paper with all the qualities and benefits of rag board, but much thinner. Used to make photo corners and for other light weight applications in framing. Rayism (1909-1913) The abstract style of painting developed by the Russian artist Mikhail Larionov. Ready Made Frame A frame ready for purchase as is, as opposed to a custom-made frame. Ready mades are usually produced in standard sizes, e.g., 8x10, 11x14, 16x20. Realism (Mid-19th Century) A group of painters in France, known as the Barbizon School, who pioneered a naturalist philosophy that art should reflect ordinary life. Images of peaceful and contented country life grew out of this movement. However, the defining moment for Realism came after the Revolution of 1848 in France when artists such as Gustave Courbet and Honore Daumier turned their attention to the working-class and poor. Recto A right-hand page of a book or the front side of a leaf, on the other side of the verso. Register Marks In multicolor printing, small dots, circles, crosses, etc., placed in the margin of the key (main) block, plate, etc., and which are transferred exactly to each printing surface made from the key. These marks enable the printer to align all the printing surfaces, so that each color impression will be in register with all the other impressions. Relief A relief is a kind of sculpture in which all or part of the material projects from a flat surface. Relief Methods A relief print is one when material such as part of a wood block, a piece of linoleum, a metal plate or other carvable material left in relief to be printed black and the remainder is cut away. Remains of Hinges Works on paper, prints, and photographs are often attached to a mat with paper hinges and a chemically neutral, non-staining, and permanent adhesive. Each hinge is attached to the piece and the back board, allowing easy removal from the board should the necessity arise. Remarque A current practice of some artists is the addition of a small personalized drawing or symbol near his pencil signature in the lower margin. The practice is borrowed from Whister's famous "butterfly" which was added to personalize many of his graphics. Renaissance (1400-1600) The Renaissance was a time of rebirth spanning from the 15th through the 17th century. In the visual arts, it was best known for its development of linear perspective as seen through the works of Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo. Reprints Produced after the original edition was issued and from the original plates or blocks. Reproduction An imitation or facsimile of a work of art, esp of a picture made by photoengraving. Repoussoir From the French verb meaning to push back. A means of achieving perspective or spacial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object i the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. Repousse Repousse is a type of design created by metal hammering on the back of a work. Representational When used to describe a work of art, the word representational means that the work depicts something easily recognized by most people. For example, the artist Leon Dolice created an etching entitled Third Avenue, which depicts a street scene in New York City. You can see a street, an automobile and lots of buildings - one of which is only found in New York City. This etching is representational art. Repurposed An item that has been repurposed no longer performs its original function, and retains only aesthetic value. Requires Cleaning An item requires cleaning if there is an accumulation of unrelated matter on its surface (e.g., dirt, dust, grime, fungus, mold, wax). Restoration Cosmetic repair of an object to recreate its original appearance. Restrike Produced after the original edition was issued and from the original plates or blocks. Often made years after the artist’s death. Rice Paper A common misnomer for Japanese paper. A smooth, white material favored by Chinese painters; cut off, in a spiral manner, from the pith of the Fatsia papyrifera tree. Not a paper, similar to papyrus and tapa in that regard. Rippled Paper When environmental influences cause disruptions, ridges, or buckling of paper. Rococo (1715-1754) The style of 18th century France characterized by elegant and ornate furniture, sculptures, mirrors, tapestries, paintings and prints. Romanesque (1000-1200) Romanesque refers to the art of Western Europe beginning 1000 and lasting for nearly 200 years. This style is characterized by its return to Roman construction techniques, not necessarily a revival of all Roman ideas. The Northern European and Byzantine styles were also highly influential in the Romanesque movement. Romanticism (Late 18th- Mid-19th century) The movement beginning in 1830 featuring loose, fluid brushstrokes, strong colors, complex compositions, dramatic contrasts of light and dark and expressive gestures. Artists often drew upon literary sources and social criticism for their subject matter. Romanticism later became identified with social commentary which was intended to stir public emotions especially in the works of Theodore Gericault and Eugene Delacroix. Rosewood A tree that grows in India, South and Central America. The wood is hard and very heavy. A special feature is the silvery sparkle it gives off when placed under light. Russian-Avant Garde (1890-1930) The wave of modern art that flourished in Russia from 1890-1930. It encompassed a variety of movements including Symbolism, Neo-Primitivism, Suprematism, Constructivism and Futurism.

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Salt Print The earliest form of photographic positive paper, salt prints were the most common print type until the invention of the albumen. Developed in 1840 by William Fox Talbot, they were created by soaking a sheet of paper in a salt solution and coating it with silver nitrate. This created a light sensitive paper which typically produced sepia prints with a matte surface. Salon A salon denotes an independent group exhibition, and is a term specific to France. Sand Casting Sand casting is typically used for low-temperature metals such as iron, copper, aluminum, magnesium and nickel alloys. In this method, materials are poured into a mold of compacted sand. Sand cast sculpture is easily identified by its textured surface, and lack of delicacy. Scale Scale refers to the size or measurement of a piece. School School refers to a group of artists working under a specific master or that possess certain qualities pertaining to a particular artist. Scottish Colourists (1920-1930s) This term refers to the group of Scottish painters whose work was highly regarded in the 1920s and 1930s. Sculpture Sculpture is a three-dimensional work of art created through carving, modeling, casting and construction. Secondary Market An arena where limited edition prints are resold after the edition has been sold out at the original sources. Security Hanger A type of hanger with one section attached to the back of the frame and the other to the wall. When positioned together, the frame is held securely and requires a special tool to separate the hanger parts. Separation Disconnection between two previously attached layers of a structure. For example, when varnish peels from the surface to which it was applied. Sepia (1) A dark brown color. (2) A dark brown pigment, used in paints and inks. Serigraph Serigraphy (also referred to as 'silkscreen' or 'screenprint') is a color stencil printing process in which a special paint is forced through a fine screen onto the paper beneath. Areas which do not print are blocked with photo sensitive emulsion that has been exposed with high intensity arc lights. A squeegee is pulled from back to front, producing a direct transfer of the image from screen to paper. A separate stencil is required for each color and one hundred colors or more may be necessary to achieve the desired effect. A serigraph differs from other graphics in that its color is made up of paint films rather than printing ink stains. This technique is extremely versatile, and can create effects similar to oil color, transparent washes as well as gouache and pastel. Sfumato Sfumato is the haze of an image within a painting. Shadow Box A frame made from a deep molding in which three-dimensional objects may be displayed. Silk-Screen A stencil process of printing in which a cloth (originally silk) is stretched over a heavy frame and the design painted by tusche or affixed by stencil. It is printed by having a squeegee force color through the pores of the fabric in areas not blocked out. The term silk-screen now implies a commercial use, the same process used in fine art is termed serigraph. Silhouette A silhouette is any profile portrait cut from black paper or painted in solid black. Silver Print Silver prints are created by the most common method for producing black and white prints in photography. These prints are generated using papers coated with gelatin that contain light-sensitive silver salts. By 1895, the Gelatin-silver print had replaced the Albumen print, because it did not yellow with age and was easier to produce. Sketch A sketch is a rough preliminary version of a composition. Skinning Excessive cleaning. Occurs when a piece has experienced exorbitant intervention from a restorer or conservationist, removing a portion of the original media. Socrealism / Socialist Realism (1930-1980) Socrealism refers to the new role of literature and art in the Soviet society. The purpose of these works was to educate the population on the importance of socialism. Southwest Art This term refers to the group of artists from the Southwestern area of the United States. Soviet Art (1917-1932) his term refers to visual art produced in the former Soviet Union. The movement was led by Kazimir Malevich, initiated to put all arts in the service of the dictatorship and strived to eliminate the conventions of bourgeois art. However, it still held on to many decadent bourgeois art forms such as impressionism and cubism. Soviet Impressionism (1930-1980) Soviet Impressionism began in the late 19th century when artists executed impressionistic techniques in defiance to Petersburg academism. It was similar to European impressionism in that their works remained colorful and dynamic. Spatialism (ca. 1946) Spatialism refers to the art movement founded by Lucio Fontana in New York City around the time of Abstract Expressionism. It combined ideas from Dada, Tachism and Concrete Art. One of the most notable works of the Spatialism period was Fontana’s slashed canvases. Staining Occurs when foreign materials react with the surface of an item and create discoloration or spotting. Stamp Print A limited edition print of a game stamp, e.g., duck stamp print. Steel Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon used in sculpture and architecture. Steel Engraving Steel engravings utilize plates composed of a harder metal, as opposed to the traditional copper plate. This method is preferable when creating designs intended for large editions, as the plate will not degrade as rapidly. Stenciling Methods This printmaking method refers to the principle of cutting or creating a hole in a protected surface and applying color through the hole to the surface beneath. Still Life This term refers to a depiction of a static group of objects. Stipple In painting, to apply small dots of color with the point of the brush; also to apply paint in a uniform layer by tapping a vertically held brush on the surface in repeated staccato touches. Stone Stone is a hard medium composed of aggregate minerals such as marble, limestone or sandstone, used to produce three-dimensional objects. For the most part, sculptors use a hammer and chisel as the basic tools in the carving of stone. Stretch To pull a fabric taut over a rigid support and secure; e.g., a canvas over a stretched frame or a needle art over foam board. Stretcher Bar A strip of wood with tongue-and-groove ends. Bars are joined to form an expandable frame over which canvas is stretched. Style Style refers to both unique visual elements or techniques that characterize an individual artist's work, as well as the particular movement or school of which the artist is associated. Sumi-e Literally meaning “ink painting,” Sumi-e paintings are monochromatic and typically associated with the practice of Zen Buddhism. This elegant form of painting was developed in China during the Song Dynasty (960-1279). Surface Abrasions Visible result of wearing, grinding, scratching, or tearing of a surface due to friction. Surface Soiling Accumulation of dirt, or other materials, upon the face of an item, including fingerprints. Surrealism (1924-1940s) This term refers to the movement founded by French writer Andre Breton. The aim of the surrealists was to discover the larger reality, or "surreality," that lay beyond tradition. Artists such as Dali and Magritte were known for their surrealist paintings dominated by biomorphic forms. Symbolism (1860s-1890s) This movement refers to the late 19th-century movement in literature and art, which focused on the world of ideas. The symbolists believed that art was the highest form of expression and knowledge. The movement rejected materialism and realism, emphasizing spirituality and imagination. Artists associated with this movement include Paul Gaugin, Gustave Moreau and Odilon Redon.

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Tears / Holes Openings in a surface caused by forcibly pulling the piece apart. Tempera A medium that was prevalent in Orthodox paintings during Southern Europe’s Middle Ages. The artist combines egg yolk, egg white, and oil to bind a range of pigments on a rigid support such as wood paneling. Tenebrism Tenebrism is a technique that emphasizes the strong shadows and night effects. Tesserae Tesserae are small pieces of marble, glass or ceramics used to make a mosaic. Tint Tint is the opposite of shade. Tinting is combining white with a color to make it lighter. Tirage Document that provides background information on the graphic edition such as edition size, printer, technique, year of execution. Tonalism (1880s-1900s) Tonalism refers to the movement beginning in the 1880s, where artists painted landscapes with a tone of mist or atmosphere. George Inness and James McNeill Whistler were two of the well known tonal artists whose compositions featured dark, neutral colors such as gray, brown and blue. Traditional Indian art Many religions (including Islam) are reflected in the art of the subcontinent. Indian art often includes calligraphy and patterned designs. Artists include: Abu'l-Hasan, Bichitr and Govardhan. Trimmed Margins When the margins of a two dimensional work of art have been reduced. Typically occurs during the framing process. Trompe L´oeil (Tromp´- loy) A french term meaning "deception of the eye." It is applied to painting so photographically realistic that it may fool the viewer into thinking that the objects or scene represented are real rather than painted. Triptych (1) A set of three paintings or bas reliefs, related in subject matter and connected side by side. The two outside half-panels (called wings) may be closed over the central panel. (2) A set of three prints that make one complete image.

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Ukiyo-e Literally translated, this means "pictures of the floating world." A Ukiyo-e is a traditional Japanese woodblock print dating from the Edo period (1603-1867). Ultraviolet (UV) Light Short, high energy invisible light waves beyond violet in the spectrum with a length of 250 to 400 nanometers. United Inch In framing, the combined inches of one length and one width of a frame; e.g., an 8x10 frame is 18 united inches. UV Filtering Acrylic Sheet A glazing material consisting of an acrylic sheet which has been formulated to remove the damaging ultraviolet rays from light.

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Value Shadows, darkness, contrasts and light are all values in artwork. Vanishing Point In perspective, the vanishing point is the point in which a set of lines converge. Verso The back of a sheet of printed paper; also called reverso. The left-hand pages of a book, bearing the even numbers. Vintage Print A print made close to the time at which the negative was exposed, using materials and procedures acceptable to the photographer who made the negative; it is only one of several significant kinds of print which may be produced from that negative.

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Wash Used in watercolor painting, brush drawing, and occasionally in oil painting to describe a broad thin layer of diluted pigment or ink. Also refers to a drawing made in this technique. Waste Mold In this expendable plaster mold casting method, a thin plaster mold is cast over an original clay model. When removed from the clay, the details of the clay are destroyed, but captured in the mold. This mold can then be used to cast metals with a low melting temperature, such as pewter, or water based casting compounds, such as plaster. Watercolor Painting that is characterized by colorful pigments dissolved in water to produce a translucent image. Water Damage / Warping Includes any type of damage caused by contact with water or humidity such as staining, warping or loosening of material. Watermark A design, pattern or mark on paper, usually produced by a raised area on which the paper is made. Watermarks on handmade papers are made by very low relief molds or designs of fine wire set on the screen on which the moist pulp collects. Western Art Western art refers to all art depicting American Western life, such as cowboys, rodeos or country scenes. Wood Wood is the fibrous surface harvested from the trunks of trees. It can come in a variety of colors and patterns with unique attributes contributing to its aesthetic quality. Woodcut Woodcut is a printmaking method in which the artist works on a plank of wood, cutting away the parts of the design that are not to be printed. The wooden surface is then inked, covered with a sheet of paper and run through a press. Wood Engraving A highly exacting technique involving engraving on a piece of polished endwood. Endwood is a cross-cut section of wood which has little or no perceptible grain. This allows for cutting of delicate lines in any direction. Woodburytype The term woodburytype refers to the photomechanical process in which continuous tone is created in slight relief. In this process, a gelatin film is exposed under a photographic negative and hardened according to the amount of light. The film is then placed in hot water removing all unexposed gelatin, dried, and pressed into a sheet of lead. As a result, an intaglio plate is created, filled with pigmented gelatin, and pressed onto paper producing a final image. Works on Paper Works on Paper include artworks drawn, painted or otherwise created on paper using a variety of media. WPA Artists (1935-1943) WPA stands for the Works Progress Administration, a government funded arts program with a section for artists. The artists in this group encompassed a wide variety of styles from figurative to academic to abstraction, and included almost every type of media. Artists included Milton Avery, Stuart Davis, Mark Rothko, Willem de Kooning and Jackson Pollock. The WPA was prominent until it was disbanded in the mid-1940s.